Gemology

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Ruby and sapphire are different color varieties of the same mineral, corundum. Ruby is the red variety, while sapphire is any color variety other than red, and so is preceded by its color designation ...»
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When hearing the word “sapphire,” most people visualize a blue gemstone, but sapphires can be any color of the spectrum except red, which is reserved for ruby. ...»
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Mined for over 4000 years, the earliest emerald mines existed in Egypt near the Red Sea, the fabled mines of Cleopatra. Today these mines are of historical interest only ...»
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Known in the gem trade as the “Queen of Gems,” pearls are possibly the first gems to be worn by human beings ...»
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Nacre and luster are the most important quality measures. Nacre quality is determined by analyzing layer thickness and layer density. Both of these factors help us to determine luster. ...»
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The fresh bright color of aquamarine is so reminiscent of the ocean that its name derives from the Latin for “water of the sea.” Iron is aquamarine’s coloring element, rendering a lively greenish-blue color when it is mined from the ground ...»
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Turquoise, with its remarkably distinctive greenish-blue color, has been employed for ornamentation by many ancient cultures throughout the ages. Today it is still in use due to the same appeal it held in the past as its sole claim to beauty—its color ...»
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Reconstructed or impregnated turquoise is an imitation or simulant of natural turquoise of varying qualities and differs markedly from synthetic turquoise ...»
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Tourmaline is a group of mineral species that is so complex they are grouped as a single species by gemologists. Their wide spectrum of color is produced by different trace chemicals and their species designations apply more to mineralogy than gemology. The color range of Tourmaline is perhaps the greatest in the gem kingdom. ...»
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Chrysoberyl is a phenomenal gem. Alexandrite and cats’ eye are varieties of chrysoberyl and exhibit two of the most startling light phenomena present in gemstones ...»
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Spinel is the great pretender of the gem world, having been tagged for centuries with the name of every species except the correct one ...»
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In the sixteenth century, the largest pink diamond ever found was unearthed from the alluvial diamond fields near Golconda, India. Called the “Darya-i-Nur” (Sea of Light) ...»
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Noticeably heavy and with a bright yellow metallic color, gold is extremely malleable and ductile ...»
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by Russell Shor
Ruby and sapphire are among history’s most coveted gems, with fashioned stones dating back to ancient Greece, India, and Asia. Traditionally, they have been scarce and expensive. The past 25 years, however, have brought radical changes in the market for rubies and sapphires, stimulated by huge increases in supply. Today, they are much more readily available in a full range of prices. ...»
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by Russell Shor
Natural colored diamonds are so varied and rare they have defied efforts to conduct extensive studies of their properties. ...»

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